In Sierra Leone the conditions ‘official publications’, official documents’, and ‘public documents’ are synonymous with government publications. Federal government publications, just set, are documents produced by authorities and nearby and quasi-govt bodies explaining and integrating views and polices. They depict the historical and recent development authorities of government and give knowledge on a broad assortment of subjects to incorporate Political Science, Economics, Finance, Figures, Labor, Business, Background, International Relations, Agriculture, Geology and Meteorology. Katz (1997) classed these publications into: (one) records of federal government administration (two).investigation paperwork for specialists which includes a substantial quantity of data and information of price to science and business (3).well-liked resources of details. Their actual physical form being both a guide, pamphlet, magazine, report monograph or electronic, specially CD-ROM (p.387).
Bibliographic management in several elements of the planet is seemingly unsatisfactory due largely to deficiency of awareness of the significance of bibliographic instruments in research in govt publications. The United States of The us, for case in point, was for a prolonged time a pioneer in this subject. As significantly again as 1895 the Printing Act of January twelve of that calendar year (28 statute, 601-624) not only proven centralized printing and distribution of federal documents but also instructed the Superintendent of Files to provide suitable resources for bibliographic handle of the files revealed. Fantastic Britain is an fantastic exception for as considerably back as 1807 collections of parliamentary papers have been printed. Nations around the world this sort of as Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Germany and Japan began separating authorities doc bibliographies primarily in the 1920s and nineteen thirties (Palic,1975). Nonetheless a excellent want for the use of federal government publications was felt pursuing Planet War 11 (1939-1945), when there was an enhanced desire in the authoritative data contained in such publications as posited by child’s (1942) in his introductory notes that ‘more and a lot more the relevance of authorities documentation is being regarded despite the refractory mother nature of some of these materials’
In parallel the emphasis created on the usefulness of govt publications in Sierra Leone is associated with the growth of printing which can be traced as far back as the founding of the Colony of Sierra Leone in 1787. Despite the fact that the business did not endure the French attack of 1794 the basis stone of what later on turned identified as the Govt Printing Division was laid in 1925 when it was billed with the creation of little notices for official use. At present the Department prints all authorities publications and supplies stationery and place of work tools of federal government departments. It also undertakes a truthful amount of commercial printing as earnings making actions.
Govt publications usually have the edge of getting amid the best in their subject matter fields frequently not very easily obtainable to other people (Smith, 1993). In lieu of the extent and complexity of authorities routines there is a need for the prevalent dissemination of data about these actions and for well-known integration of authorities coverage. No wonder why govt publications have unique value to educational library collections and their authority is long lasting. In tutorial libraries in Sierra Leone these publications are place apart into a specific selection manned by a curator as at Fourah Bay University Library. Some are held in vertical documents other people are put in pamphlet containers, whilst those like maps and surveys are offered specialised storage. These publications are obtained mainly by buy, deposit, donation, trade and photocopying. The Government Printing Office is accountable for their publication
DIVISIONS OF Govt AND THEIR PUBLICATIONS
The expansion of government in Sierra Leone’s publish-war reconstruction era at nearby, countrywide and intercontinental levels has resulted in increasing her affect on the life of the citizenry. Simultaneously with this growth is the proliferation of formal and semi official businesses, commissions and bureaus which continue to publish performs such as directories, laws, reports, charges, Acts and technological literature which a lot of a scientists, educators, community provider functionaries, welfare recipients and the unemployed can not do with out reference to these kinds of publications. Considering that librarians serve as interface amongst users and federal government they have for prolonged identified the problems which this kind of a myriad of collection can pose and have been producing remarkable strides to address the issue. The essence below is to give systematic controls to keep away from the disappearance, into oblivion, of vital official publications.
In Sierra Leone govt publications slide inside a few standard courses: Govt, Legislative ands Judicial. The Govt publications include people issued by the Offices of the President and the Vice President, and a variety of impartial places of work and institutions such as Countrywide Commission for Social Motion (NaCSA), Countrywide Revenue Authority (NRA), Anti Corruption Fee (ACC), Countrywide Commission for Privatization (NCP) and the Business office of the Ombudsman. Also included are authorities ministries this sort of as the Ministries of defense Education, Youth and Sports International Affairs and Intercontinental Co-procedure Tourism and Cultural Affairs Regional Authorities and Community Improvement Agriculture, Forestry and Meals Protection Trade and Market Inside Affairs labor and Industrial Relations and Improvement and Economic Preparing.
The Ministry of Trade and Sector, for instance, is liable for each interior and international trade and the marketing of exports. It has powers in excess of customs and excise, tariffs, insurance coverage, patents, trademarks, standards, weights and steps. The Ministry of International Affairs and International Cooperation is responsible for Sierra Leone’s relationship with overseas and Commonwealth international locations whilst the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Meals Protection is liable for administrating govt policy on agriculture, horticulture and food stability. This Ministry provides practical guidance to farmers, business producers of horticultural crops and investigation.The Ministry of Inner Affairs offers with the routine maintenance of regulation and buy, the Law enforcement and Hearth Forces, administration of the prisons and the therapy of offenders. Other miscellaneous matters dealt with by this ministry incorporate explosives, firearms, dangerous drugs, prisons, shops, public protection, amusement, cremation, bylaws and good rule and formal business. The aforementioned capabilities and related ones carried out by other ministries call for the development and maintenance of publications. There is also documentation of push briefings provided by the varied heads of ministries and newsletters, which are channels for respective ministries there-by generating them much more general public-relations mindful.
Legislative publications include the records and debates of Parliament and the reports of hearings of the diverse Parliamentary Committees. Provided here also are several coverage statements in reply to parliamentary questions. The Hansard is another rich source for general public matters as it provides formal information and sights about parliamentary debates.
Publications from the Judiciary branch of federal government consist mostly of reviews of authorities conclusions by the Justice of the peace, Appeals and Supreme Courts. Identified in this arm of authorities are regulation guides, ‘annual registers’, point out trials and rulings, the structure, international treaties, protocols, peace accords, Functions, charges and digests of neighborhood newspapers. These publications provide the judiciary with pertinent info on multifarious lawful matters. This kind of information is necessary to be factual and politically neutral.
The City and District Councils, getting quasi-authorities institutions, offer paperwork categorized as federal government publications. These incorporate constructing codes, instructional improvement, health and sanitation, restrictions on squander disposal, use of firearms and hearth equipment. Also there are authorities departments which supply statistical information on a vast assortment of economic, industrial and social demographic information. Of central importance are Data Sierra Leone (previously Central Figures Business office-CSO), accountable for nationwide inhabitants census and house surveys the Business office of Births and Deaths which registers and generates yearly statistics of births and fatalities in the country the Office of the Registrar Standard dependable for statutory registration of marriages, patents and emblems the Chamber of Commerce which specializes on enterprise data. These offices deliver collectively crucial economic and social figures supplied by government departments. Other important government departments are the Meteorological Workplace, which proceeds to give pertinent weather info, and the Countrywide Archives, which serves as repository of all non-recent authorities publications inclusive of countrywide newspapers. The afore-pointed out government publications fluctuate in dimensions and size. Written by authorities in the subject, govt publications are not only authoritative but also timely revealed and deal with subject areas of recent interest. Their function, in accordance to Katz (1969), is to provide data and answer concerns and not to provoke discussion or organizational cataloging and administration. They are beneficial main reference sources.
Academic LIBRARIES IN SIERRA LEONE
Tutorial libraries in Sierra Leone are those in the constituent units that sort the country’s two universities, specifically the College of Sierra Leone and the College of Njala. These libraries represent the bibliographic foundation of the nation’s investigation desire. They take part actively in the distribution and exchange of guide and non-book materials to sister establishments all in excess of the region. Collectively these institutions serve students, college, scholars and researchers that are engaged in operate in the sciences and humanities as well as the basic public. These libraries have mixed resources of above 500,000 volumes, most of which are of special scope and high quality. Incorporated in these huge collections are govt publications such as treaties, Acts, statistical tables and compilations, conventions and documents of diplomatic relations, stories of government departments, committees, bureau and commissions, census schedules, proclamations and legal guidelines. The routine maintenance, preservation and development of these publications are duties shared by academic librarians as their libraries carry on to serve as nationwide sources.
JUSTIFICATION FOR THE Improvement OF Government PUBLICATIONS IN Educational LIBRARIES
Diverse factors have been sophisticated for the inclusion of government publications in academic libraries in Sierra Leone. The reasons of the country’s universities are training, service, research and interpretation and dissemination of analysis. Society views govt as a reliable and neutral source of authoritative data that should be accessible to its citizens by means of its many publications. Given that educational institutions deal with college students who in flip will be potential citizens these need to be knowledgeable appropriately. Government’s stance ought to be recognized when there is public dialogue on well being, global relations, education and learning, agriculture, social stability and trade, to cite a few examples. Therefore the need for the advancement of authorities publications in academic libraries as these kinds of components could communicate for the government in assorted activities. Even more educational libraries have the aims of preservation, conservation and service. And govt publications sort portion of society’s cultural heritage which want conservation and preservation not only for research needs but also for posterity as tangible principal sources of info which teachers can constantly refer to. Little question why as a evaluate of bibliographic management of these publications librarians carry on to offer catalog’s, checklists, guides, indexes, accessions lists and chosen basic bibliographies containing significant details on authorities publications.
1991-2001 was a period of doom in Sierra Leone as it marked the civil war. Fought as a consequence of negative governance, nepotism and substantial corruption it led to the un-wanton destruction of lives and houses. Crucial authorities buildings0 wrecked to reckless abandon integrated the National Treasury, Sierra Leone Police premises, regulation courts and the offices of the Freetown Metropolis Council all of which housed critical files continuously consulted by scientists, govt functionaries and the public. Not withstanding the nation is slowly recovering with the re-institution of neighborhood govt, multi-party democracy, improved human, girls and youngster rights, the provision of a conducive atmosphere to investment, and a new system of schooling (6-three-three-four), to cite but a number of developments, the successful procedure of which demands continual use of authorities publications.
The wide applications in academic institutions contain a lot of places of lifestyle with the instructing of historic and geographic concepts scientific research are carried out for enhanced overall health and food protection intercontinental relations and inter-spiritual understanding are fostered. Also present day neighborhood existence and the philosophy of democracy, peace and conflict resolution, good governance, human rights and other ideologies are taught in buy that smart selections could be drawn. These designed academic packages provide enrichment and data to college students in this kind of fields as economics, government, overall health and sanitation, agriculture, international relations, human legal rights and diplomacy. In assist of these different disciplines academic libraries supply huge collections to incorporate neighborhood components some of which are in the form of government publications whereby college students, faculty and researches could share their activities and pursuits and produce satisfactory personal adjustment with regard different federal government functionaries in modern society. By so carrying out learners are provided the prospect to expand in social usefulness and produce their mental pursuits and abilities in purchase to turn into accountable associates of modern society. This in turn could assist promote nationalism. In lieu of these factors tutorial libraries try to give liberal collections to consist of guides, serial publications, audio-visuals and govt publications.
Government publications are between the most useful resources in tutorial libraries in Sierra Leone. Aside from the community library, the national archives and parliament library which provide as repositories for this sort of publications tutorial libraries proceed to create these publications in their huge collection. Even so this kind of moves are not bereft of troubles. These variety from bad formats via lack of trade bibliographies to unsatisfactory techniques of distribution. The fundamental issue to all these libraries is the quantity of publications obtained, considerably of which is absolutely nothing but raw data and statistics used to support arguments or collected much more for the sake of collecting fairly than for any particular reasons. Considering that these libraries have restricted area to property their numerous collections the ongoing acquisition of federal government publications poses issues to employees.
Academic libraries acquire authorities publications mainly by donations although a handful of are obtained by buy, trade and photocopy. As soon as these materials are acquired they are expected to be processed and structured for use in the library. Sadly there has been no fastened pattern in classifying and arranging these resources in these libraries. Their business is both by govt ministry/department, matter or structure which is typically perplexing to consumers. At project-topics.com.ng , for case in point, these publications are positioned separately from the basic assortment which often constrains customers in having to leave their studying area to seek the advice of these materials with limited sitting down lodging. Libraries at Njala University School, Institute of Public Administration and Management (IPAM) and the Higher education of Drugs and Allied Well being Sciences (COMHAS), which are comparatively modest in dimensions combine the publications in their standard assortment therefore posing retrieval troubles to end users.
Retaining observe of government publications is one more issue as there are no trade bibliographies printed out to support trace them. Rarely are these publications talked about in the nationwide bibliography, Sierra Leone Publications, geared up by the community/countrywide library. Aside from the Govt Printing Division dependable for the manufacturing of authorities publications does not have any comprehensive lists of its publications. Most occasions these publications are either returned immediately to the respective ministries/departments proudly owning them on completion or despatched to the Govt Bookshop for sale or marketed by the Federal government Printing Division on completion, as a result generating it hard to identify retrospective publications. Even worse nonetheless each the Government Printing Section and the Federal government Bookshop are not intrigued in publicizing these publications and as these kinds of several consumers including educational librarians are not mindful of the availability of relevant authorities publications for acquisition as a result causing lapses in the development of these resources in tutorial libraries. In parallel one would anticipate educational libraries to compile thorough lists of these kinds of publications but this has not been the situation thanks to the minimal number of workers manning this collection and the quantum of work they have to carry out particularly throughout peak durations when libraries are heavily utilised which is time consuming.
There are also problems of collection improvement. Academic libraries are beneath-funded and consequently librarians prioritize their collection development needs. Buying govt publications has not been a priority for tutorial librarians as they constantly look ahead to the Govt Printing Department for donations which are frequently not forthcoming. Hence several related authorities publications are not found in educational library collections. What is far more this constrained assortment is grossly misused and abused by users (specifically undergraduate student consumers) in their educational pursuits. As a result most of these publications have dingy covers others have a couple of web pages both created on or pilfered while some are intentionally mis-shelved to deprive colleagues of utilizing them.
The incorporation of government publications in the mainstream of tutorial library companies should be deemed a priority by college authorities and tutorial librarians in offering obtain to federal government-made information in Sierra Leone. Symbolizing a significant and integral component of the nationwide resources govt publications are major sources of data in nearly every area of endeavor and are vital to informed public-selection creating. Tutorial librarians need to therefore overview their selection development methods and processing and organization strategies of these materials if they are to be persistently employed by their many clientele. Especial considered ought to be provided to increased funding, resource sharing, compilation of lists and sufficient staffing, sitting down accommodation and storage place if they are to maintain standards in serving their numerous clientele.